To begin with, I would like to point out a misconception held by creationists that the existence of Chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve is proof that Scientists have admitted to their claim that all humans originated from the Biblical claim of Adam and Eve. This is a fallacy, as science relies of evidence, which can be tested and proved, not mythology or cultural beliefs.
Although the mitochondrial Eve is scientific proof that all existing humans did evolve from one female, does not assume that a chromosomal Adam existed at the same time as the mitochondrial Eve. It also does not assume that the mitochondria Eve was the only female existing at that time. In fact, there were tens of thousands of other females existing at that time. The chromosomal Adam actually existed fifty thousand to eighty thousand years after the mitochondrial Eve. The mitochondrial Eve was the originator to the human X chromosome and Adam is responsible for the Y chromosome in modern humans.
Chromosomal Adam gets its name from the Biblical Adam, and does however cause misconceptions. Chromosomal Adam was not and did not need to be the first male. He in fact lived with thousands of other males, including his father, The only difference between this Adam and all the other males of his time, No other males produced an unbroken male line leading to modern humans. Only his descendents survived. Chromosomal Adam is responsible for the Y chromosome all males possess in their mitochondria to this day.
Chromosomal Adam lived around one hundred and forty two thousand years ago. Contrary to creationists wish, Chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve would not have met during their life times.
Mitochondria Eve: is the most recent maternal linear ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor
Chromosomal Adam: is the most recent paternal linear ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor
The genetic material, known as the DNA in a cells nucleus controls the cell. It brings in nutrients from various parts of the body. Then makes hormones, proteins and other chemicals. The cytoplasmic matrix, or the cytoplasm contains tiny organelles that are commonly referred to as Mitochondria, which are past down from generation to generation by the mother, which are commonly referred to as “energy factories” of the cell.
The field of human genetics, refer to mitochondrial Eve as the most common maternal ancestor, or the matrilineal ancestor of modern humans. Or, all living humans evolved from mitochondrial Eve on their mothers side, as the Mitochondrial DNA every human possesses is descended from their mothers, including the Y chromosome by definition, although the chromosomal Adam and mitochondrial Eve lived thousands of years apart.
Ancestors to modern humans were evolving into their own distinct species two hundred thousand years ago. This is the exact time that mitochondrial Eve existed. Mitochondrial eve most likely lived in east Africa, as the first Homo sapiens were becoming distinct from their earlier ancestor and other human sub-species.
Mitochondrial Eve existed earlier than the ancestor of Homo heidelbergensis and before the emergence of Homo neanderthalensis and before the migration out of Africa.
It is relatively easy to trace the lineage back to mitochondrial Eve. The mitochondrial DNA is traced unmixed from mother to children of both sexes back through the generations through the maternal side, until the DNA lineage converges. Mitochondrial DNA accumulates mutations every three thousand five hundred years on average. DNA mutations are the driving force for the evolutionary process. A certain number of variations will survive and pass onto modern lineages as a distinct lineage.